Monday, July 6, 2020

Reaction Paper - Free Essay Example

Elizabeth Cooper MGT-106 Ball May 20, 2010 Self-Assessment Reaction Paper Summary It is not easy to describe yourself and to be truly honest. The way you think of yourself and how another person might think of you could be completely different. This class has helped me to understand myself better and accurately describe me. If I had to describe myself, I would say that I am very laid back and easy going. I do not let small things bother me. I feel you should â€Å"pick your battles† sort of speak. I think I take after my mom. Growing up I never saw her really angry at anyone. She always gets a long with everyone and I think she rubbed off on me. I am also friendly and caring. I am always concerned with how people feel and how I can help others. I enjoy talking and being around all different types of people. Another word I would use to describe myself is hard-working. I always put 100% in everything I do. I like having a sense of accomplishment. I value friends, family, loyalty, and honesty and surround myself with people who also value these things. I do have a few concerns with myself however. Although I consider being able to trust people to be a good trait, being to trustworthy may be a bad thing. I feel that I can be to trustworthy at times. I trust everyone until he or she gives me a reason not to trust them. I feel that it is important to know if people are honest and trustworthy and I give everyone the benefit of the doubt. I have had a few problems in my past with trusting people before I really know them. For example, I was at a party one of friends was having and met this lady. My friend knew her and figured she was an alright person. A few days later I ran in to her and she asked to borrow a few dollars from me. She gave me a sad story and told me that she would be sure to pay me back the following week. The following week came and I did not hear from her. A few weeks later I ran into her and she never offered or mentioned the money she borrowed from me. I think this is a good example of being too trustworthy. Specific Strengths and Weaknesses The self-assessment exercises I did for this class really opened my eyes to what kind of person I am. I have learned a lot about myself that I was unaware of. 1)The results of The Locus of Control self-assessment exercise in chapter 2 really shocked me. I scored a twenty on the assessment, which meant that I believe that I am in control of my own destiny. Also, that I think very little is controlled by fate, chance, and other people. This shocked me because I thought I would have scored more in the middle because I do believe in fate and chance. I think that things happen f or a reason but it is up to us to do something about it. (2)The Big Five Personality exercise from chapter 2 also opened my eyes. My weakest dimension was surgency. According to these results, I am a follower and do not like to compete or influence. I on the other hand would not consider myself to be a follower. Although I do not like to lead, I do what I want to do. My strongest dimension was aggreeableness, which includes traits related to getting along with people. (3)In chapter 13 the self-assessment exercise was Your Decision Making Style. I scored a twenty on the exercise and the results showed that I have a consistent style. When I make a decision I always think about the decision and consider all alternatives before I make a decision. 4)The Networking Skill Self-Assessment exercise in chapter 11 really helped me learn just how important knowing people can help me in starting and bettering my career. It also helped me learn ways to plan my career. (5)The Openness to Change exercise proved that I am open to change. I do not mind trying new things but will do what I like to do best. (6)Chapter 4’s exercise really was a learning exper ience for me. It talked about techniques that can help me in time management. Making a to-do list, stop being a perfectionist, and only do one task at a time are things I learned can help me with time management. 7)Chapter 5’s exercise was a real eye opener. According to the Listening Skills exercise I am in the middle of being a good listener and poor listener. I have always thought of myself as a good listener but this exercise said otherwise. After reading the chapter and going over the exercise I agreed with the results. There are a few thing that I can do to improve my listening skills. (8)The Stress Personality-Type confirmed that I do stress. The results showed that I have a Type A personality, which means that I could end up with some of the problems associated with stress and I do agree with these results. 9)The Learning Style exercise helped me to learn why and how I learn the way I do. I scored a 16 in observing, 9 in doing, 8 in feeling, and 17 in thinking. The re sults concluded that my preferred dimension of learning is an assimilator, which combines observing and thinking. The book says that assimilators are skilled at creating models and theories and developing plans. They are skilled at understanding a wide range of information and putting it into concise, logical form. (10)The exercise in chapter 7 ( Use of the Assertiveness Style) concluded that my preferred style is assertive. People who use this behavior tend to have a positive self-concept. They are not threatened by others and do not let others control their behavior. All of these exercises helped me learn how to work with others better. They showed me ways to improve how I act and control myself around others. The Listening Skills exercise in chapter 5 will really impact how I work with others. I now know that I am not as good of a listener as I thought I was. Now that I know this, I can improve on how well I listen to others. Recommendations After completing all the exercises, I have learned that I need to do things a little differently. I definitely need to listen better and I plan too. Also I plan not to think about certain decisions too long. Although I have a consistent style, I know that sometimes I can over think things and in return make the wrong decision. I think I have good human relation skills already. So I plan to keep doing what I already do but change a few things. For example, I plan to start being a leader. I am going to step up and take control of situations I am in. Also, I plan to speak-up a little more and let people know exactly what I am feeling. Self-Reflection I have learned that life is full of surprises. How you think of yourself and how others think of you are most of the time going to be different until you are honest with yourself. I hope that when I graduate I am able to live a productive life-style. I hope to enjoy my job, family, friends, and life. Four years from now, I want to have a career as an RN and be settled in a home that I will live in for the rest of my life with my family. This class has helped me a lot. It taught me ways to improve myself. Also helped me learn ways to help me with time management. Which is going to be a big help, considering I have 2 children and a husband and plan to have a successful career.

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

Police Culture and Corruption - Free Essay Example

Introduction A string of media investigations during the 1980s uncovered police corruption in Queensland. Persistent media attention and national interest soon led the Acting Premier of Queensland to commission an inquiry into illegal behaviour and related police misconduct. The subsequent inquiry substantiated reports that corruption did exist and that, worryingly, the corruption was wide-spread and high-level. As a consequence of exposing police corruption, society is often left with questions regarding the degree of trust they have with the police, the extent to which corruption runs within the department, and what is being done to prevent corruption from spreading (Lawson, 2011; Loree 2006). A police department with an organisational culture of systemic corruption and questionable ethics, will find itself with officers (exposed to that culture early in their career), soon promoted to leadership roles in which the corruption can bloom and perpetuate. In this essa y I will address the role that the police culture plays in the opportunity for corruption to breed, and identify what can be done in an attempt to stamp it out. Organisational Culture and Corruption Organisational culture is the unwritten rules, shared values and beliefs that guide the attitudes and actions of an organisationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s members in their approach to their work and how they interact with each other (Lawson, 2011; State Services Authority, 2013). For police officers, these rules are shaped by the function of policing itself and create a culture of conformity and camaraderie with cultural elements that include: an inflated belief of purpose concerning the role of policing and a passion for exciting work with a slanting towards crime; revelment in macho activities and deeds; the disposition to utilise force; distrust and suspicion; isolation from friends and family; defensive esprit de corps; a cynical attitude towards the motives of others; and an unwillin gness to accept the views of individuals who defy the current state of affairs (Lawson, 2011). These cultural elements lend themselves to a sub-culture typified by a code of silence, undisputed devotion and loyalty to other officers, and pessimism regarding the criminal justice system (Loree, 2006, p. 10) and can lead to a closed police society and corruption (Cox, McCamey and Scaramella, 2013). Loree (2006, p.4 citing Sayed and Bruce, 1998) defines police corruption as any illegal activity or misconduct involving the use of occupational power for personal, group, or organizational gain and can occur internally (as bullying or hazing, or offering payments or favours in return for shift changes or holidays) or externally (by receiving free meals or drinks, accepting bribes or kickbacks, or participating in theft or organised crime). When corruption is uncovered it can have consequences for both the officer involved, other officers who have had no part to play in the corruption or for the police department as a whole. For the officer, or officers, involved, the consequences can vary depending on the nature and severity of the corruption or misconduct. At the lesser end of the scale it can include demotion, reduction in pay or limitations in career advancement. At the more serious end of the scale punishment could include dismissal, criminal charges or prison. As severe as some of these consequences are for the individual officers, the effects of corruption on the organisation are even more critical. The embarrassment resulting from misconduct and corruption can be injurious to the publics confidence and trust, demoralize sections and officers, or expose the department to litigation. (Fitch, 2011; Loree, 2006, pp.17-19) As a result of judicial inquiry, departmental review or analysis by external researchers, numerous suggestions have been made that police departments can adopt in an attempt to stamp out, or reduce, misconduct and corruption. After the ju dicial inquiry into police corruption in Queensland during the 1980s (later becoming known as the Fitzgerald Inquiry), a recommendation was made that the Queensland police should adopt a fundamental doctrine of community policing. The implementation of this recommendation has led to a proactive community policing approach in which crime prevention officers engage with the community through school visits, security and safety audits or homes and business premisies and presentations to various community groups (Lawson, 2011). Equally important to the reduction of corruption and misconduct is the presence of ethical and strong leadership (including organisational management, officers in charge of branches or sections, supervisors of teams, or senior partners). These leaders influence the culture of the organisation and the organisations enthusiasm for change. Leaders should take a zero tolerance approach to dishonesty, misconduct and mediocrity. The dispensement of soft punishment fo r dishonesty or misconduct will be seen as tolerating those behaviours, and the acceptance of mediocrity can produce an environment in which misconduct flourishes. By taking a zero tolerance approach to these issues, and perpetuating a high standard of ethics and integrity, leaders can create an organisational culture that is capable of stifling misconduct. (Barry, 1999, pp.81-85; Cox, McCamey and Scaramella, 2013, p.99; Loree, 2006, p.26; Martin, 2011) To the same degree that leaders should have a zero tolerance approach to misconduct and mediocrity, they should also recognise and reward virtuous conduct and exceptional work. Loree (2006, citing Mink et al., 2000) notes that when officers feel valued they are satisfied, positive and productive in their behaviours and efforts towards achieving organizational goals. If the only recognition officers receive is chastisement for mistakes, they quickly learn that the reward for keenness and hard work is the danger of being exposed to punishment (Cox, McCamey and Scaramella, 2013, p.99). Protection for whistle-blowers, or those officers who are prepared to speak out against the code of silence, is essential to protect the whistle-blower from litigation, civil and criminal liability, and victimisation (OmbudsmanSA, 2013). The code of silence is grounded in those parts of police culture that often make work teams and sections so effective loyalty and group acceptance. However, it is those same parts that also make it problematic for police officers to report the corruptive behaviour of others (Loree, 2006, p. 11). It is crucial then, to ensure that those officers brave enough to speak out are protected from being turned into outcasts and rewarded for their ethical stance. Punishment for misconduct and corruption, and reward for exemplary work and virtuous conduct are reactive measures for reducing corruption and changing police culture. Taking a proactive approach, ethical training regarding the essential pa rt police officers have in the community, and closely tied to the actualities of police work should be both evolving and ongoing. Field tutors and senior partners, particularly, should be educated in ethics so that they are prepared to reinforce the ethics and integrity message that recruits are exposed to during training. When officers are aware of the conduct expected of them, they can be considered responsible for any misconduct or corruption (Barry, 1999, pp.81-85; Loree, 2006, p.22). Of considerable value when attempting to reduce future misconduct is careful recruiting, selection screening and the arduous task of not employing unethical individuals to begin with. Factors which might make an individual at risk of being involved in misconduct or corruption, such as: their associations with criminals; upbringing; or lifestyle choices, should all be considered when screening potential employees. It is vital that departments adequately assess applicants and employ only the most upstanding and honest ones because they potentially have a superior measure of integrity (Loree, 2006; Martin, 2011). Do police officers need to know this? It is important for all police officers to understand the effects of misconduct and corruption for themselves and the department, for them to take the ethical and moral high-ground in coming forth to report such actions, and to understand what can be done to overcome an organisational culture that lends itself to corruption simply being the way things are done. It is important as every police officer can be the catalyst for change, to foster integrity and be a part of an organisation that the community trusts. South Australia Police Strategic Direction and Service Delivery Charter The South Australia Police (SAPOL) Service Delivery Charter (n.d.) clearly sets out the expectation of a culture of service excellence. To achieve this SAPOL need to be seen to be ethical and devoid of corruption. Through community engagemen t and proactive community policing, as outlined in their Strategic Direction (2012), SAPOL opens itself up to public scrutiny and offer a level of transparency into the way in which results are achieved. It is essential that the results that are expected by both the community and the department are achieved fairly, professionally and ethically. Conclusion Judicial inquiries, whistle-blowers and investigative journalism have shown that police departments are sometimes not absent of corruption and misconduct. At times this corruption and misconduct is borne from a culture characterised by a code of silence, dedication, loyalty and pessimism. However, the existence of such an organisational culture is not necessarily par for the course. By establishing a moral and ethical culture in a police organisation misconduct and corruption can be controlled and prevented. The steps needed to establish a culture of this type includes: a doctrine of community policing; a zero tolerance ap proach to dishonesty, misconduct and mediocrity; recognition and reward for virtuous conduct and exceptional work; ethical training; and careful recruiting. The adoption of the above recommendations can assist to embolden leadership, propagate an ethical and morally rich organisational culture and craft police departments which are open and approachable to their communities. Key aspects for presentation Some elements of the community believe that all police are corrupt. Whilst this is at the extreme end of the scale, it would be foolish to assume that a large percentage of citizens dont suspect that there are still corrupt elements within SAPOL. Corruption or misconduct occurs for many reasons, and sometimes those reasons are because of the police culture an unspoken rule regarding the code of silence (or looking out for your mates because of some misguided sense of loyalty), or turning a blind eye to catch a crook or ensure a successful prosecution (because the courts aren t capable of doing their job properly). It is important that the department, and the people in it, do all they can to distance themselves from being the root cause of corruption and misconduct due to an unethical organisational culture. SAPOL can achieve this by continuing its policy of community policing, ensuring that it remains open to public scrutiny, maintain strict recruitment processes and provided ongoing training in relation to the behaviour expected from officers. Police officers can help to ensure a culture free from corruption and misconduct by adopting a zero tolerance approach to dishonesty, misconduct and mediocrity, and speaking out about such behaviour without fear of retribution. Word count: 1765 Bibliography Barry, D. (1999).Handling Police Misconduct in and Ethical Way. Master. University of Nevada. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2012).Leading Culture Change Employee Engagement and Public Service Transformation. Policy into Practi ce. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Cox, S., McCamey, W. and Scaramella, G. (2014).Introduction to policing. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Fitch, B. (2011). Understanding the Psychology of Police Misconduct.The Police Chief. [online] Available at: https://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_archarticle_id=2290issue_id=12011 [Accessed 1 Jun. 2014]. Fleming, J. and Rhodes, R. (2004). Ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s situational: the dilemmas of police governance in the 21st century. In:Australasian Political Studies Association Conference. Adelaide. Gilmartin, K. (n.d.).Ethics Based Policing Undoing Entitlement. [online] Emotionalsurvival.com. Available at: https://emotionalsurvival.com/ethics_based_policing.htm [Accessed 1 Jun. 2014]. Lawson, C. (2011).:: SCAN | journal of media arts culture ::. [online] Scan.net.au. Available at: https://scan.net.au/scan/journal/display.php?journal_id=159 [Accessed 28 May. 2014 ]. Loree, D. (2006).Corruption in Policing: Causes and Consequences A Review of the Literature. Ottawa: Canadian Mounted Police. Martin, R. (2011).Police Corruption An Analytical Look into Police Ethics. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Murray, T. (2000). Police and the challenge of the 21st century: managing change in police organisations.Platypus Magazine. [online] Available at: https://www.afp.gov.au/media-centre/publications/platypus/previous-editions/2000/september-2000/2-21century.aspx [Accessed 28 May. 2014]. OmbudsmanSA, (2013). Whistleblower Protection. Adelaide: OmbudsmanSA. [online] Available at: https://www.ombudsman.sa.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/policy_part_2_2013.pdf [Accessed 28 May. 2014]. South Australia Police, (2012).South Australia Police Strategic Direction 2012-2015. [report] Adelaide: Government of South Australia. South Australia Police, (n.d.).Service Delivery Charter. [report] Adelaide: Government of South Australia.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Black Power Movement Of African Americans - 1605 Words

Social Movement Today, there are many movements that are going on due to unfair ways of oppression. Oppression can be defined as â€Å"tyranny by a ruling group to the injustice some suffer due to everyday practices of a society† (Campà ³n and Carter 2015: 497). I chose to write about the Black Power Movement because of the recent cases of oppression that have been occurring in the United States of America. Oppression can happen to people of all races, ethnicities, and sexual orientations. The black power movement cannot be placed into a box of confinement, it much more that one movement. Since the 1960s there have been many things like small protests and movements that have contributed to the black power movement over time. There have been†¦show more content†¦Black power was said to have echoed throughout American as a cry for liberation, pride of culture, and radical solidarity. There has always been a constant struggle for economic equality. Many people saw the movement as an angry outcry due to little progress that had been made to achieving civil rights. Also, the article stated that instead of helping the civil rights movement, it corrupted the younger generation of Black activist and it reinforced segregation. It was also said to be the civil rights movement’s evil twin. Black people did not have a voice that they could speak out about injustice. The oppression of Black people was very common in the southern states. Black people were not the dominant group of people. White people were the dominant group and Black people were the subordinate group. Black people had to do what they were told by the White people, for they were in total control of how society functioned. Lynching of Black people, police brutality and unpredictable danger occurred just because the color of their skin, anyone of color was not safe at all during those times. The civil rights movement was going on around the same time that the black power movement star ted. The civil rights movement had a more peaceful approach. Both of the movements pushed for equality and to end oppression but the black power movement, moved beyond the south. In the article, Carmicheal said, â€Å" It is a call for black people to unite, recognize their heritage, to build a

A Case Study Of GBS Mutual Bank Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3545 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Definition of bank interest risk Banks can be described as intermediaries between lenders and borrowers. In general, banks accept client funds with varying maturities and lend at different terms as well. Interest rate risk stems from assets and liabilities maturing at different times. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Case Study Of GBS Mutual Bank Finance Essay" essay for you Create order There are basically three components under interest risk, which are the margin between the rates earned on assets and paid on liabilities, the repricing potential of assets and liabilities at different points in time, resulting in mismatches in various time frames between assets, liabilities and derivatives, and the period during which these mismatches persist. Banks can theoretically avoid interest rate risk by perfectly matching assets and liabilities by setting the rates on both sides fixed or floating, and thus enjoy a fixed margin. However in reality, the ideal construction of the asset and liability portfolio is dependent on variables such as bank competition as well as the requirements of clients, investors and stakeholders, all of which may affect the composition of the balance sheet. A large portion of private banks revenue stems from net interest income which is generated from the difference between various assets and liabilities that are held in the balance sheet. Th e composition of both interest income and interest expense of the GBS mutual bank are listed in Appendix 1. The relationship between interest rate risk and the yield curve The shape of the yield curve affects banks interest rate risk and liquidity risk exposure. In order to hedge or take advantage of a particular shape in the yield curve, banks may alter the composition of the balance sheet from time to time. The normal yield curve A normal yield curve means long-term securities have higher yields than short-term ones. In order to take advantage of the positively sloping yield curve the bank may alter the structure of its balance sheet by borrowing funds short and lending them long. The banks interest margin and profit will interest at the expense of a decrease in bank liquidity. The inverse yield curve The inverse yield curve represents a lower long-term yields and higher short-term yields. In order to maximize profits, the bank should alter the structure of the balance sheet by borrowing funds long-term and lending short-term. Liquidity of the bank will be increase together with interest margin and profit. However, as the inverse yield curve indicates a changing interest rate structure, banks risk exposure will increase of rates change suddenly which affects net interest income significantly. The flat yield curve While the short-term yield equals the long-term yield, no profit can be made from the mismatching of assets and liabilities. In this scenario interest rate risk is minimized as no returns can be made from restructuring the balance sheet. BUSINESS CIRCUMSTANCE OF GBS MUTUAL BANK AND SOUTH AFRICAN INTEREST RATE CYCLE Background The GBS head office is located in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The bank has branches located in Cape Town, Port Alfred and Port Elizabeth. The bank was formed in 1877 and is regarded one of South Africas oldest financial institutions. It is noted that a large portion of the banks current business activity is derived from home mortgages business. Specific Business Circumstance of GBS Mutual Bank The purpose of this section is going to provide a brief explanation to the GBS business practices. The mutuality of the bank is a feature that differentiates its business activities substantially from other private sector banks and affects its interest rate risk exposure. To be a mutual bank, GBS has a particular business strategy. Firstly, the bank is no shareholders, so the bank is not only owned by its share-depositors. Since this is no shareholders, the GBS is not purely profit driven as other banks. To a certain extent, bank profits are generated primarily to maintain bank reserves and capital adequacy requirements of Reserve Bank of South Africa. Moreover, the GBSs primary source of funds or primary liabilities is bank deposits, while its primary assets or uses of funds are mortgages and asset backed finance. Secondly, the small community banking business and the geographic footprint affect the number and demographic pattern of customers. Hence, the GBS has incorporated a personalized banking service for its customers in order to generate a competitive advantage over other competitors. For example, a large portion of its clients is elderly citizens who prefer high yield deposits. The GBS often quotes rates above those of its competitors in order to retain and attract this type of client. Based on the above banking practices, the GBS use a low risk profile in order to ensure a short-term credit. The profile is that a significant portion of the banks advances is collateralized and in the form of different mortgages such as residential properties, smaller commercial and industrial properties. Also, the bank tries to focus on these types of advances primarily from its previous business structure as a building society. Secondly, due to the regulations of the Mutual Banks Act, the bank is statutorily required to hold an amount of capital of not less than 10% of its risk-based assets as a buffer against losses by depositors. Finally, the experienced m anagement is required to ensure the trade profitably of GBS. In summary, the practices have ensured a short-term credit to GBS. South African Interest Rate Cycle and Term and Structure of Interest Rates: 1996 2007 The down trended of interest rate has been observed in last decade. It is provided a reference to understand the yield curve of South Africa. The repurchase rate and the bank prime lending rate are included in Appendix 2. Based on the data from the reserve bank of South Africa, the yield curve has been deduced and showed in Appendix 3. As mentioned previous, when the difference between the 10-year bond rate and the 91-day Treasury bill rate is positive, the normal yield curve exists where the yield on longer-dated bonds is higher than the yield on short-dated bonds. According to the figure, a positive or upward sloping yield curve occurs during March 1999 May 2002 and September 2003 October 2006. Secondly, when the Treasury bill is negative, the inverse yield curve exists where the yield on short-dated bonds is higher than the yield on long dated bonds. Then, a negatively shaped yield curve occurs during November 1996 March 1999 and June 2002 September 2003. Finally, t he flat yield curve exists where the yield on short-dated bonds is equal to the yield on long-dated bonds. A flat yield curve appears on a number of occasions during 1996 as well as March 1999; June 2002; September 2003 and October 2006. GBS MUTUAL BANK INTERES RATE RISK HEDGING Balance sheet positioning instruments Net interest income smoothing Net interest income is the difference between the interest income received on banks assets and the interest payments on its liabilities, and it is the primary source of banks income. The NII smoothing technique simply relies on the banks ability to reduce the variability of NII caused by the interest rate fluctuation. As the assets of GBS mature faster and therefore reprice faster than its liabilities, it would naturally receive a higher amount of NII during a rising interest rate scenario and a lower amount of NII during falling interest rates, and so the GBS will save larger portions of funds during rising interest rate periods in order to offset losses during periods of declining interest rates and hedge its interest rate risk. Volume strategy A volume strategy is a hedging method to alter the volume or mix of assets and liabilities on the balance sheet by purchasing or selling the required amount of funds in the market. It is similar to NII smoothing which is positioning banks balance sheet toward targeting NII, however, volume strategy relies heavily on bank interest rate forecasts. If the interest rate is increasing, the GBS will naturally be in a position to benefit from its asset sensitive balance sheet. This balance sheet structure can be repositioned by further shortening the maturity structure of its assets and lengthening the maturity structure of its liabilities. During a falling interest rate environment, the GBS should operate in the opposite way. Pricing strategy Banks can position itself advantageously during experienced and forecasted interest rate cycles by adjusting the interest rates quoted to borrowers and lenders and thereby influence the amount of assets and liabilities on its balance sheet. And this is an interest rate pricing strategy. Applying this method, GBS can effectively hedge its interest rate position by increasing rates on short-term deposits and increasing rates on long- term loans when the prevailing interest rate trend is downward sloping. This will increase the volume of short-term deposits due to the higher rate of interest received by customers and reduce the amount of long-term loans as customer interest payments become greater. It must be noted, however, that this strategy may have some practical drawbacks for the GBS. The GBS regards itself as a price-taker in so far as its quoted rates are linked to rates quoted by its larger competitors. Any significant restructuring of interest rates may hamper interest margins and business practices. It is also recognized that a pricing strategy may also take longer to implement due to the intermediary target variables. Moreover, a pricing strategys effectiveness requires substantial customer volume in order to change the structure of the balance sheet. The ideal portfolio The ideal portfolio is a balance sheet positioning strategy that perfectly matches assets and liabilities in terms of maturi ty as well as fixed-rate and floating-rate financial instruments. It can be attained with a combination of the above mentioned balance sheet positioning strategies and the banks ability to buy or sell fixed or floating interest rate financial instruments. During an upward sloping yield curve environment, the GBS can construct a portfolio in the following manner: the GBS can construct a portfolio with long dated fixed-rate liabilities and short-dated floating-rate assets. Conversely, the GBS should hold a portfolio containing short-dated floating-rate liabilities and long-dated fixed rate assets if a downward sloping interest rate environment persists. It is recognized, however, in reality the ideal portfolio construct is virtually impossible as the positioning of the balance sheet and the type of financial instruments held can be dependent on variables such as bank competition as well as the requirements of clients, investors and stakeholders, all of which may affect the compo sition of the balance sheet. Thus banks are naturally exposed to interest rate risk as they have a large variety of assets and liabilities that differ in terms of maturity and repricing frequency. Immunization Immunization refers to the banks ability to match the average duration of the banks balance sheet to the investment horizon. It is important to note that the realized annual return remains constant when the duration is made equal to the holding period. We can verify this in an example in Appendix 4. The bank holds a R100, 000 bond that yields interest payments of 12% paid annually with the maturity of 5 years and the duration of 4. 04 years. Appendix 4 illustrates the effects of immunization under three different interest rate scenarios: an increased rate of 14%, a steady rate of 12% and a lower rate of 10%. The table also provides a fluctuating holding period of 5 years, 4 years and 3 years. It is clear from the example provided is that as long as the duration of 4.04 i s made equal to the holding period of 4 years, the return of 12% is received regardless of the fluctuating interest rate. Therefore, GBS can be able to immunize itself against interest rate risk at either the individual asset class level or the entire portfolio level. By making the duration of the bond or indeed the average duration of the entire portfolio equal to the investment horizon, the GBS can offset its interest rate risk exposure. This is because the rise in the interest rate induces a decline in the market price of the bond/portfolio, while the income earned on the reinvestment of the bond/portfolio rises to offset this amount. The net effect is that the realized return remains constant. Immunization may be a useful tool, but it is also acknowledged immunization does not take convexity into account and may be expensive and time consuming to implement because the GBS will need to continuously rebalance the portfolio in order to match the duration of its instruments to the investment time horizon. Interest rate derivative The Interest rate derivatives provides a viable method for the GBS to hedge its interest, and the use of interest rate derivatives is affected by many aspects, for instance instruments availability, transaction costs and specific GBS business circumstance. The financial derivatives including: securitization, interest rate forwards, interest rate futures, interest rate swaps, interest rate options, interest rate caps, interest rate floors, interest rate collars and hybrid derivatives. First derivative is securitization. The GBS use securitization to reduce the interest risk by moving the longer duration assets and interest rate-sensitivity items off the balance sheet by securitization. Whats more, the securitization allows for the unbundling of risk, which means the unbundled interest rate risk can be sold to a third party or managed by a more competent third party. However, it also has some disadvantages. First, the securitization is extremely complicated to implement. Second , it cost a lot to disseminate interest rate risk effectively. Third, its less likely for an investor to invest in a once-off securitized asset from an issuer. Second kind of interest rate derivatives is interest rate forwards and Interest rate futures. Interest rate forwards can gain the interest rate income after downside period of reduced NIM, it has advantage that you can hedge a position more precisely and it has no liquidity risk with no marginal call. However, it also has some disadvantages that it is more expensive compared to other derivatives and the credit risk is increased. By the use of Interest rate futures, the investor can have long futures position offset the decline in NII. It also has some advantages such as it is ideally suited to smaller financial institutions and it is guaranteed by an exchange, however it also cumbersome when using it. Third kind of derivatives is Interest rate swaps and Interest rate options. The biggest difference of interest rate opti ons is that provides the right, not obligation to GBS. Both of the Interest rate swaps and Interest rate options has disadvantage of sophisticated systems. In addition, as for the interest rate options, pricing process is complex, and premiums may be expensive. Another interest rate derivative is interest rate caps, interest rate floors and interest rate collars. The interest rate caps is not a viable instrument for it place an upper limit to earnings and reduce the potential earning increase when the interest rate increases. However, the interest rate floors is an ideal instrument because it protect the interest rate income when interest rate declines. As regard to interest rate collars, we can buy an interest rate floor at a pre-specified rate and simultaneously sell an interest rate cap to allow the GBS to enforce the contract below the floor strike rate and reduce its interest rate risk exposure. However, since the use of such interest rate contracts is highly administrativel y intensive, we should not exceed a period of three years. Finally is the hybrid derivative, which contains Options on swaps and Options on futures. They are both very expensive and option on swaps is less administrative. However, due to their features, such contracts should not be entered into for a period longer than 12 months. Among the above interest rate derivatives, the most practical ones are interest rate futures and interest rate collars. Interest rate futures is guaranteed and market-to-market. Whats more, since the futures market has high liquidity, the closing-out position is quite simple for investors, which making the futures easily accessible and suited to smaller financial institutions. On the other hand, the interest rate collar sets the cash flows negatively related to the interest rate. For instance, when interest rate decreases, the cash flow from floor purchase increases, and the premium is offset in the process. Consequently, the cash flow structure of in terest rate collar is perfectly suited to the GBS to hedge risk. Retaining the status quo Besides the methods above, another option for the GBS is to retain the business operations with an un-hedged interest rate risk position. There are a number of reasons the current strategy may be retained, including: inducing other risks, other hedging options may be too expensive, requiring a large amount of monitoring and sophisticated systems, or may alter the business structure of the bank unfavorably. GBS MUTUAL BANK ASSET AND LIABILITY COMMITTEE Introduction As mentioned in previous sections, banks face various types of risks such as interest rate risk and liquidity risk. The GBS Asset and Liability Committee (ALCO) was established to manage these risks so as to enhance the banks risk and return structure. This section will provide us an exploration on the functions and organization of the GBS ALCO. Functions of the GBS ALCO The three main functions of the GBS ALCO are interest rate risk measurement, stimulation and interest rate risk management. The purpose of interest rate risk measurement is to quantify the interest rate risk profile of the Bank. Stimulation means the committee will explore the past and recent information in the interest of anticipating future performance and risks in order to constitute business and hedging policies. Interest rate risk management aims to measure, monitor and control its risk. Complicated measurement, adequate monitoring and pricing systems are significant factors for the GBS to appropriately hedge its interest rate risk. Since GBS faces large numbers of risks, it has to assure that hedging policies cover interest rate risk as well as other risks. The GBS has made satisfactory results on hedging risks by utilizing the complex computational systems. However, it is quite costly to use the systems. The current interest rate risk hedging strategy would conform to a p rudent strategy instead of a speculative strategy. By adopting a prudent hedging strategy, the GBS would be able to hedge its interest rate risk partially or entirely by either locking in a certain interest rate over time or just hedging unfavorable interest rate movements. Organization of the GBS ALCO All departments of GBS are encouraged to participate in interest rate risk policies in order to enhance the effectiveness and corporation of hedging risks. Furthermore, the GBS should also integrate the use of external and internal sources of information when establishing its ALCO structure. The Bank can make use of external sources such as macroeconomic indicators (fiscal policy and monetary policy) to forecast the banks internal interest rate. In the mean time, internal sources such as maturity structure, growth forecast, etc. serve as substantial factors for the balance sheet forecast. The GBS currently performs these activities extremely well. It is suggested to carry meetings frequently so as to monitor the GBS interest rate risk exposure. The GBS recently conforms to the following practices. When the market is unstable, meetings can be held daily to provide better supervision on the Banks performance. In contrast, during the normal business situation, meetings can be condu cted less frequently, say four to eight times a month. Moreover, five members who are from different departments across the GBS have formed a risk sub-committee. This improves the communication and effectiveness of risk researches. CONCLUSION This essay focuses on the interest rate risk management by analyzing the GBS mutual bank. It began with a brief description of a banks interest rate risk and its relation to other bank risks. It mainly focused on interest rate risk and the ways to manage these risks. It then started to perform an empirical analysis on a case study of GBS mutual bank. GBS mutual bank specific business circumstance is discussed first, and then followed by an investigation on the South Africa interest rate cycle and term structure of interest rates from 1996 to 2007. Moreover, it is significant to explore the GBS mutual bank interest rate hedging tools which comprise of three elements: balance sheet positioning instruments, interest rate derivatives and retaining the status quo. This essay also suggested two interest rate derivative instruments which are interest rate futures and interest rate collars for the purpose of balance sheet positioning strategies. Last but not least, the functions and organi zation of the GBS mutual bank asset and liability committee are introduced since interest rate risk management is affected by the committee. The GBS ALCO has the power to choose the hedging strategy that suits themselves the most. After investigating the interest rate risk management of the GBS mutual bank, we should have more understanding on interest rate risk, its relative yield curve, structure as well as interest rate risk management. APPENDIX Appendix 1 South African Banks: percentage contribution of interest income and interest expense (average December 2005 Rand Millions) Appendix 2 Interest Rate Cycle (1996-2007) Appendix 3 The 10- year bond rate, the 91-treasury bill rate and the differential (1996-2007) Appendix 4: Impact of Holding Period on Realized Annual Return Bond : R100 000, 12% (annual return) ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ Maturity : 5 years ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ Duration : 4.04 years ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ Holding period Interest rate Bond price after holding period Coupon paid Reinvestment income Total value Realized annual return ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ (% p.a.) (R000) (R000) (R000) (R000) (% p.a.) 5 years 12 100.0 60 16.2 176.2 12.00 ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 10* 100.0 60 13.3 173.3 11.60 ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 14** 100.0 60 19.2 179.2 12.38 4 years 12 100.0 48 9.4 157.4 12.00 ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 10* 101.8 48 7.7 157.5 12.00*** ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 14** 98.2 48 11.1 157.3 12.00*** 3 years 12 100.0 36 4.5 140.5 12.00 ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 10* 103.5 36 3.7 143.2 12.70 ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 14** 96.7 36 5.3 138.0 11.30 * Market rate falls to 10% after first year and remains there ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ** Market rate rises to 14% after first year and remains there ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ *** Approximate ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ ÃÆ' £Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Choices With Consequences VsThe Lottery, And Young Goodman...

Talal Almutairi Dr. Gates English 305 5 July 2017 Choices with Consequences In this paper, I shall focus on drawing comparisons and contrasts between â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson, and â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† by Nathaniel Hawthorne. In her short story, ‘The Lottery’, Jackson uses a series of specific details and ordinary personages to describe the events leading to an unfair death. These details reveal the dangers of blindly upholding traditions and passing them to the next generations, without knowing much about the origin or the significance of the tradition. Jackson wisely incorporates various elements of fiction into the story in order to bring a create a vivid understanding of the meaning of her story and the message she is trying†¦show more content†¦The devil refers to seeing Goodman Brown’s grandfather whipping a Quaker in the streets and handing Goodman Brown’s father a flaming torch so that he could set fire to an Indian village during King Philip’s War. B y including these references, Hawthorne reminds the reader of the dubious history of Salem Village and the legacy of the Puritans and emphasizes the historical roots of Goodman Brown’s fascination with the devil and the dark side. On the other hand, â€Å"The Lottery† was written in 1948, not long after the end of World War II and The Great Depression. The two events changed the way people in society related with one another, in such a way that people were made to embrace the thinking that every man would be on their own in order to survive. This is shown throughout the story by the citizens not having a problem with the lottery until if affects them directly. Jackson’s story also shows the sense of division and sexism between men and women associated with the 1940s. Women were often fired from their jobs in order to make room for the retuning male soldiers and were expected to return home to stay with the family. This idea of women being forced from one positio n of power to a lower position is shown in the last scene of â€Å"The Lottery† when the â€Å"winner† Tessie Hutchinson is the one who receives the black dot and is stoned to death. She tries to fight for her life but in the end is over powered by society’s rules.

Frankenstein vs. Bladerunner - 1866 Words

As society changes around us, we spot things we never noticed before: high divorce rates, murder rates, and drug use just to name a few. James Riddley-Scott and Mary Shelley noticed and had a fear of child abandonment. In Frankenstein, Shelley explores this subject through the viewpoint of a man, Victor, who creates a child so hideous that he cannot bear to look at it, and consequently deserts it. In Blade Runner Scott explores this matter through a businessman, Tyrell, who makes replicants of humans, the Nexus 6, gives them only four years to live, and sells them as slaves. The children of these creators turn out to be smarter and more human than expected, and revolt against the way society treats them, giving us all a lesson in†¦show more content†¦In Blade Runner, Roy befriends J.F. Sebastian, a geneticist that happily states,  gI create my own friends. h After Sebastian has smuggled Roy into the Tyrell bedroom, and Roy has convinced himself that Tyrell can be o f no use to him, he kills both of them. This type of despair that Roy shows us is significant because it portrays his anger toward his creator, who has neglected him since his conception. The created beings in these tales become smarter than expected, and soon realize that they have been mistreated. Victor fs monster is smart enough to understand that he has been discarded, and children that have been abandoned can easily become devilish in nature. The monster pleads again and again with his audience that he was born good, but compelled by others to do evil. He even argues that if only one person would have been nice to him, he would have changed his ways when he says,  gIf any being felt emotions of benevolence towards me, I should return them an hundred and an hundredfold; for that one creatures sake, I would make peace with the whole kind! h (105). The monster is put in a place that makes him angry with all of society, and this makes him put very little value on human life. Likewise, the Nexus 6 have little regard for the humans that have made them slaves. Human life to these robot-like creatures is nothing, because human society has put such little emotional value on the replicants as a race. The mindset of theseShow MoreRelated Frankenstein Vs. Bladerunner Essay1830 Words   |  8 Pages As society changes around us, we spot things we never noticed before: high divorce rates, murder rates, and drug use just to name a few. James Riddley-Scott and Mary Shelley noticed and had a fear of child abandonment. In Frankenstein, Shelley explores this subject through the viewpoint of a man, Victor, who creates a child so hideous that he cannot bear to look at it, and consequently deserts it. In Blade Runner, Scott explores this matter through a businessman, Tyrell, who makes replicants of

The Traversal of the Infinite Essay Example For Students

The Traversal of the Infinite Essay Sam Vaknins Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web SitesFiniteness has to do with the existence of boundaries. Intuitively, we feel that where there is a separation, a border, a threshold there is bound to be at least one thing finite out of a minimum of two. This, of course, is not true. Two infinite things can share a boundary. Infinity does not imply symmetry, let alone isotropy. An entity can be infinite to its left and bounded on its right. Moreover, finiteness can exist where no boundaries can. Take a sphere: it is finite, yet we can continue to draw a line on its surface infinitely. The boundary, in this case, is conceptual and arbitrary: if a line drawn on the surface of a sphere were to reach its starting point then it is finite. Its starting point is the boundary, arbitrarily determined to be so by us. This arbitrariness is bound to appear whenever the finiteness of something is determined by us, rather than objectively, by nature. A finite series of numb ers is a fine example. WE limit the series, we make it finite by imposing boundaries on it and by instituting rules of membership: A series of all the real numbers up to and including 1000 . Such a series has no continuation (after the number 1000). But, then, the very concept of continuation is arbitrary. Any point can qualify as an end (or as a beginning). Are the statements: There is an end, There is no continuation and There is a beginning equivalent? Is there a beginning where there is an end ? And is there no continuation wherever there is an end? It all depends on the laws that we set. Change the law and an end-point becomes a starting point. Change it once more and a continuation is available. Legal age limits display such flexible properties. Finiteness is also implied in a series of relationships in the physical world : containment, reduction, stoppage. But, these, of course, are, again, wrong intuitions. They are at least as wrong as the intuitive connection between bound aries and finiteness. If something is halted (spatially or temporally) it is not necessarily finite. An obstacle is the physical equivalent of a conceptual boundary. An infinite expansion can be checked and yet remain infinite (by expanding in other directions, for instance). If it is reduced it is smaller than before, but not necessarily finite. If it is contained it must be smaller than the container but, again, not necessarily finite. It would seem, therefore, that the very notion of finiteness has to do with wrong intuitions regarding relationships between entities, real, or conceptual. Geometrical finiteness and numerical finiteness relate to our mundane, very real, experiences. This is why we find it difficult to digest mathematical entities such as a singularity (both finite and infinite, in some respects). We prefer the fiction of finiteness (temporal, spatial, logical) over the reality of the infinite. Millennia of logical paradoxes conditioned us to adopt Kants view that t he infinite is beyond logic and only leads to the creation of unsolvable antinomies. Antinomies made it necessary to reject the principle of the excluded middle (yes or no and nothing in between). One of his antinomies proved that the world was not infinite, nor was it finite. The antinomies were disputed (Kants answers were not the ONLY ways to tackle them). But one contribution stuck : the world is not a perfect whole. Both the sentences that the whole world is finite and that it is infinite are false, simply because there is no such thing as a completed, whole world. This is commensurate with the law that for every proposition, itself or its negation must be true. The negation of: The world as a perfect whole is finite is not The world as a perfect whole is infinite. Rather, it is: Either there is no perfectly whole world, or, if there is, it is not finite. In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant discovered four pairs of propositions, each comprised of a thesis and an antithesis, bo th compellingly plausible. The thesis of the first antinomy is that the world had a temporal beginning and is spatially bounded. The second thesis is that every substance is made up of simpler substances. The two mathematical antinomies relate to the infinite. The answer to the first is: Since the world does not exist in itself (detached from the infinite regression), it exists unto itself neither as a finite whole nor as an infinite whole. Indeed, if we think about the world as an object, it is only logical to study its size and origins. But in doing so, we attribute to it features derived from our thinking, not affixed by any objective reality. Kant made no serious attempt to distinguish the infinite from the infinite regression series, which led to the antinomies. Paradoxes are the offspring of problems with language. Philosophers used infinite regression to attack both the notions of finiteness (Zeno) and of infinity. Ryle, for instance, suggested the following paradox: voluntar y acts are caused by wilful acts. If the latter were voluntary, then other, preceding, wilful acts will have to be postulated to cause them and so on ad infinitum and ad nauseam. Either the definition is wrong (voluntary acts are not caused by wilful acts) or wilful acts are involuntary. Both conclusions are, naturally, unacceptable. Infinity leads to unacceptable conclusions is the not so hidden message. Zeno used infinite series to attack the notion of finiteness and to demonstrate that finite things are made of infinite quantities of ever-smaller things. Anaxagoras said that there is no smallest quantity of anything. The Atomists, on the other hand, disputed this and also introduced the infinite universe (with an infinite number of worlds) into the picture. Aristotle denied infinity out of existence. The infinite doesnt actually exist, he said. Rather, it is potential. Both he and the Pythagoreans treated the infinite as imperfect, unfinished. To say that there is an infinite num ber of numbers is simply to say that it is always possible to conjure up additional numbers (beyond those that we have). But despite all this confusion, the transition from the Aristotelian (finite) to the Newtonian (infinite) worldview was smooth and presented no mathematical problem. The real numbers are, naturally, correlated to the points in an infinite line. By extension, trios of real numbers are easily correlated to points in an infinite three-dimensional space. The infinitely small posed more problems than the infinitely big. The Differential Calculus required the postulation of the infinitesimal, smaller than a finite quantity, yet bigger than zero. Couchy and Weierstrass tackled this problem efficiently and their work paved the way for Cantor. Cantor is the father of the modern concept of the infinite. Through logical paradoxes, he was able to develop the magnificent edifice of Set Theory. It was all based on finite sets and on the realization that infinite sets were NOT b igger finite sets, that the two types of sets were substantially different. Two finite sets are judged to have the same number of members only if there is an isomorphic relationship between them (in other words, only if there is a rule of mapping, which links every member in one set with members in the other). Cantor applied this principle to infinite sets and introduced infinite cardinal numbers in order to count and number their members. It is a direct consequence of the application of this principle, that an infinite set does not grow by adding to it a finite number of members and does not diminish by subtracting from it a finite number of members. An infinite cardinal is not influenced by any mathematical interaction with a finite cardinal. The set of infinite cardinal numbers is, in itself, infinite. The set of all finite cardinals has a cardinal number, which is the smallest infinite cardinal (followed by bigger cardinals). Cantors continuum hypothesis is that the smallest inf inite cardinal is the number of real numbers. But it remained a hypothesis. It is impossible to prove it or to disprove it, using current axioms of set theory. Cantor also introduced infinite ordinal numbers. Set theory was immediately recognized as an important contribution and applied to problems in geometry, logic, mathematics, computation and physics. One of the first questions to have been tackled by it was the continuum problem. What is the number of points in a continuous line? Cantor suggested that it is the second smallest infinite cardinal number. Godel and Cohn proved that the problem is insoluble and that Cantors hypothesis and the propositions relate to it are neither true nor false. Cantor also proved that sets cannot be members of themselves and that there are sets which have more members that the denumerably infinite set of all the real numbers. In other words, that infinite sets are organized in a hierarchy. Russel and Whitehead concluded that mathematics was a bran ch of the logic of sets and that it is analytical. In other words: the language with which we analyse the world and describe it is closely related to the infinite. Indeed, if we were not blinded by the evolutionary amenities of our senses, we would have noticed that our world is infinite. Our language is composed of infinite elements. Our mathematical and geometrical conventions and units are infinite. The finite is an arbitrary imposition. During the Medieval Ages an argument called The Traversal of the Infinite was used to show that the worlds past must be finite. An infinite series cannot be completed (=the infinite cannot be traversed). If the world were infinite in the past, then eternity would have elapsed up to the present. Thus an infinite sequence would have been completed. Since this is impossible, the world must have a finite past. Aquinas and Ockham contradicted this argument by reminding the debaters that a traversal requires the existence of two points (termini) a begi nning and an end. Yet, every moment in the past, considered a beginning, is bound to have existed a finite time ago and, therefore, only a finite time has been hitherto traversed. In other words, they demonstrated that our very language incorporates finiteness and that it is impossible to discuss the infinite using spatial-temporal terms specifically constructed to lead to finiteness. The Traversal of the Infinite demonstrates the most serious problem of dealing with the infinite: that our language, our daily experience (=traversal) all, to our minds, are finite. We are told that we had a beginning (which depends on the definition of we. The atoms comprising us are much older, of course). We are assured that we will have an end (an assurance not substantiated by any evidence). We have starting and ending points (arbitrarily determined by us). We count, then we stop (our decision, imposed on an infinite world). We put one thing inside another (and the container is contained by the at mosphere, which is contained by Earth which is contained by the Galaxy and so on, ad infinitum). In all these cases, we arbitrarily define both the parameters of the system and the rules of inclusion or exclusion. Yet, we fail to see that WE are the source of the finiteness around us. The evolutionary pressures to survive produced in us this blessed blindness. No decision can be based on an infinite amount of data. No commerce can take place where numbers are always infinite. We had to limit our view and our world drastically, only so that we will be able to expand it later, gradually and with limited, finite, risk. .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add , .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .postImageUrl , .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add , .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add:hover , .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add:visited , .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add:active { border:0!important; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add:active , .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2da7ec2eaeeb142d6a5c9989913d2add:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: media violence Essay